Introduction To The Basics Of Electric Vehicles

Blog | news | Feb 18,2023

Basic Components Of Pure Electric Vehicles


The motor is the power device of the electric vehicle. It is an electromagnetic device that realizes the conversion of electric energy based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. It is represented by the letter M in the circuit. Its main function is to generate rotational motion as a power source for electrical equipment or various machinery.


The main function of the generator is to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, which is represented by the letter G in the circuit.

Cooling system

The cooling system usually consists of a radiator, a water pump, a fan, a thermostat, a coolant temperature gauge, and a drain switch. There are two cooling methods for electric vehicle engines, namely air cooling and water cooling. Generally, electric vehicle engines use water cooling.

Transmission system

Pure electric vehicle chassis, because its electric motor has good traction characteristics, so the transmission system of a battery vehicle does not need a clutch and transmission. Vehicle speed control can be realized by changing the speed of the motor through the speed regulating system by the controller.

Driving system

The driving system is similar to that of fuel vehicles, mainly including frame, axle, wheels, and suspension. The function of the electric vehicle driving system is to receive the torque transmitted by the motor through the transmission system, and through the adhesion between the driving wheel and the road surface, generate the traction force of the road on the electric vehicle to ensure the normal driving of the vehicle.

In addition, it should mitigate the impact and vibration of the vehicle body caused by uneven roads as much as possible, so as to ensure the normal driving of electric vehicles.

Steering system

The function of the electric vehicle steering system is to maintain or change the driving direction of the electric vehicle, which includes the steering control mechanism, steering gear and steering transmission mechanism, and other components. The steering system is composed of a steering wheel, steering gear, steering knuckle, steering knuckle arm, tie rod, straight tie rod, and so on.

When the electric vehicle is turning, it is necessary to ensure that there is a coordinated turning angle relationship between the steering wheels. By manipulating the steering system, the driver keeps the electric vehicle in a straight line or turning motion state or switches between the above two motion states; it is also necessary to ensure that the steering wheel does not vibrate naturally, the steering wheel does not swing, and the steering wheel does not vibrate in the driving state. Sensitive, small minimum turning diameter, easy handling.

Brake system

The braking system is the general term for all braking and deceleration systems equipped with electric vehicles. Its function is to slow down or stop the driving electric vehicle, or keep the stopped electric vehicle still. The braking system includes brakes and brake transmissions. Anti-lock braking devices, etc. are also installed in the braking system of modern electric vehicles. Similar to fuel vehicles, the braking system of pure electric vehicles is also composed of two sets of driving brakes and parking brakes.

Electrical Equipment

Electric vehicle electrical equipment mainly includes batteries, generators, lighting fixtures, instruments, audio devices, wipers, etc. The role of the battery is to supply the starter and the electric motor with electricity. In order to meet the high voltage requirements of electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles usually use a power battery pack formed by multiple 12V or 24V batteries connected in series or in parallel as the power source. to supplement power.

The power battery pack is the key equipment of pure electric vehicles. The electric energy it stores and its own weight and volume play a decisive role in the performance of pure electric vehicles. The power battery pack occupies a large part of the effective loading space on the pure electric vehicle, and it is quite difficult to arrange it. Generally, there are two forms centralized arrangement and decentralized arrangement. Pass

Energy recovery system

The function of the energy recovery system is to convert the inertial mechanical energy during coasting into electrical energy when the electric vehicle is coasting (or braking), store it in a capacitor or charge the power battery, and quickly release the energy when in use.

Cooling system

Because the battery will generate a lot of heat during the operation of the vehicle, so having a good heat dissipation system is very important for the safety of the electric vehicle and the life of the battery.


The body is divided into two parts, the front, and the compartment. The front part can usually take two people, the driver and the co-pilot. The carriages are modified according to customer needs, including carriage configuration, materials, space design, etc. In order to maximize the comfort of passengers, electric vehicles usually use single seat side by side, and the number of seats varies according to the specific model.

Industrial installations

Industrial devices are specially arranged for industrial pure electric vehicles to complete job requirements, such as lifting devices, masts, and forks of electric forklifts. The lifting of the fork and the tilting of the mast are generally completed by a hydraulic system driven by an electric motor.

Industrial installations

Types Of Pure Electric Vehicles

● A single battery as a power source
A pure electric vehicle using a single battery as a power source is only equipped with a battery pack.

● Equipped with an auxiliary power source
For pure electric vehicles using a single battery as a power source, the specific energy and specific power of the battery are low, and the weight and volume of the battery pack are relatively large.

Therefore, add auxiliary power sources, such as supercapacitors, generator sets, solar energy, etc., to some pure electric vehicles, thereby improving the starting performance of pure electric vehicles and increasing the driving range.

How Do Pure Electric Vehicles Work?

Pure electric vehicles use the energy of the battery to drive the electric motor to drive the wheels forward.

Energy flow route: battery→power conditioner→electric motor→power transmission system→drive wheel.

Among them, the battery provides current, which is output to the motor after passing through the power regulator, and then the motor provides torque, which drives the wheels through the transmission device to realize the driving of the vehicle.

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